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2) Functional Ligands, Hemilability, Metal Complexes and Applications

A very rich chemistry has been developed based on difunctional ligands of the P,O-, P,N-, and N,O-type and extended to trifunctional systems. Such phosphine ligands, in particular the ketophosphines and their corresponding enolates, are relevant to the industrial SHOP process of ethylene oligomerization. An overview is provided in Chem. Rev. 2006, 106, 134-159.